As per Consumer Protection Act, a complaint must contain any of the following allegations :
(a) An unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice has been adopted by any trader;
Example : A sold a old mobile to B representing it to be a new one. Here B can make a complaint against A for following an unfair trade practice.
(b) The goods bought by him or agreed to be bought by him suffer from one or more defects;
Example : A bought a laptop from B. It was not working properly since purchase. A can make a complaint against B for supplying him a defective computer.
(c) The services hired or availed of or agreed to be hired or availed of by him suffer from deficiency in any respect.
Examples : (i) A submitted his phone to service centre for defects. Service centre did not return the device after service and delayed the same. A reported this to the company. Company did not take any steps. So the services of A and the company suffer from deficiency. (ii) A hired services of a Tax consultant to defend himself in a case. The consultant did not appear every time for the hearing. A can make a complaint against the consultant for deficiency in service.
(d) A trader has charged for the goods mentioned in the complaint a price in excess of the price fixed by or under any law for the time being in force or displayed on the goods or any package containing such goods.
(e) Goods which will be hazardous to life and safety when used, are being offered for sale to the public in contravention of the provisions of any law for the time being in force requiring traders to display information in regard to the contents, manner and effect of use of such goods.
Example : A bought a tin of disinfectant powder. It had lid which was to be opened in a specific manner. Company did not give any guidelines as to how to open it. While opening the lid in ordinary way, some powder flew in the eyes of A which affected his vision. Here A can make a complaint against the company / trader.